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PFAS stands for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances. These are a group of synthetic chemicals that have been widely used in various industrial and consumer products due to their unique properties, including resistance to heat, water, and oil. PFAS are highly persistent in the environment and do not break down easily, which has led to their accumulation in the environment and potential for adverse effects on human health and the environment. PFAS are used in a variety of applications, including firefighting foams, non-stick cookware, stain-resistant carpets and upholstery, food packaging, and many other industrial and consumer products. Due to their widespread use, PFAS are found in many areas of the environment, including soil, groundwater, surface water, and even in the air and in human and animal tissues (bioaccumulation). Exposure to PFAS has been linked to a range of adverse health effects, including liver damage, immune system effects, and an increased risk of certain cancers. As a result, many regulatory agencies have set guidelines and standards for PFAS in drinking water and other environmental media, and there is ongoing research into the potential risks and impacts of these chemicals on human health and the environment.