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LNAPL stands for light non-aqueous phase liquid. It refers to a group of liquid hydrocarbons that are less dense than water and have low solubility in water. LNAPLs include various petroleum hydrocarbons, such as gasoline, diesel, and kerosene, as well as other organic compounds. When released into the environment, LNAPLs can migrate through the subsurface and accumulate in soil and groundwater, posing a risk to human health and the environment. LNAPL contamination can cause vapor intrusion, where volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the LNAPL enter the vapor phase and migrate to indoor spaces, leading to indoor air quality problems. LNAPL remediation typically involves a combination of technologies, such as separate-phase or total fluids recovery, dual-phase extraction, and in situ treatments, such as bioremediation and chemical oxidation. LNAPL recovery involves removing the visible LNAPL layer from the surface of the groundwater using pumps or skimmers, while dual-phase extraction involves the simultaneous removal of LNAPL (and LNAPL-impacted groundwater) and associated vapors.