Heavy metals are a group of elements that have high atomic weights and densities. They include metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, chromium, and nickel, among others. Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that can also be found in various industrial processes and products. Heavy metals can have toxic effects on humans and the environment. Exposure to heavy metals can occur through various routes, including ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact. Heavy metals can accumulate in the body over time, leading to long-term health effects, such as damage to the nervous system, kidneys, and liver. Some heavy metals, such as lead, can also cause developmental and neurological damage in children. Heavy metals can enter the environment through various pathways, including industrial discharges, improper disposal of waste, and agricultural runoff. Once released into the environment, heavy metals can persist for long periods and can accumulate in soils and sediments, posing a risk to human health and the environment. Remediation of heavy metal contamination typically involves the use of specialized technologies, such as excavation, stabilization, or immobilization of contaminated soil or sediment.