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DNAPL stands for dense non-aqueous phase liquid. It refers to a group of liquid organic compounds that are denser than water and have low solubility in water. DNAPLs include various chlorinated solvents, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and carbon tetrachloride, as well as other organic compounds. When released into the environment, DNAPLs can migrate through the subsurface and accumulate in soil and groundwater, posing a risk to human health and the environment. DNAPL contamination is often challenging to remediate due to the complex subsurface distribution and behavior of DNAPLs. DNAPL remediation typically involves a combination of technologies, such as source zone treatment and solute plume management. Source zone treatment involves treating the DNAPL source area, where the highest concentrations of DNAPL are present, using in situ or ex situ remediation technologies, such as chemical reduction or oxidation, thermal treatment, or bioremediation. Plume management involves treating the dissolved phase plume, using technologies such as chemical reduction or bioremediation.