Combined remedies, also known as hybrid remedies, refer to the use of multiple remediation technologies in a complementary manner to achieve more effective and efficient site cleanup. By combining different remediation technologies, their individual limitations can be overcome, and the remediation goals can be achieved more quickly and cost-effectively than using a single remediation technology alone. For example, combining in-situ technologies, such as bioremediation and chemical oxidation with ex-situ technologies such as soil excavation and off-site disposal, can effectively treat the contaminant source area and distal regions of the solute plume. This approach can provide a more complete and effective cleanup, while minimizing the amount of excavation and disposal required. Overall, combined remedies offer a flexible and adaptable approach to site remediation that can be tailored to site-specific conditions and remediation goals. However, their success depends on careful design, implementation, and monitoring to ensure that the technologies are compatible and effective in achieving the desired outcomes.